This room is a 600 square foot room with two 8-foot chemical fume hoods. Each fume hood requires 1750 cfm of make-up air to capture and contain fumes when the fume hood sash is fully open. If this room were to be operated as a constant volume room, the cost to condition and move the make-up air through the room would be over $15,000 per year. By making this room a VAV room, the hoods will capture and contain better, and the cost to condition and move the air through the room would be about $6,000 per year.
Sequence of Operations
Two conventional variable air volume fume hoods are each designed to exhaust a volume of air which provides a constant face velocity (typically, 100 fpm) at the sash opening regardless of sash position. As each sash opening increases or decreases, the volume of air exhausted through its associated hood exhaust valve changes proportionately, thereby maintaining a constant average face velocity at the sash opening. [All fume hoods are set up to furnish the desired face velocity at some minimum sash opening which corresponds to the amount of open area required for the minimum hood exhaust volume to achieve the desired face velocity. As the sash area decreases below this minimum opening, the minimum hood exhaust volume remains constant, thereby increasing face velocity.] This conventional variable volume control approach only provides for a reduction in airflow volumes, and an associated increase in energy savings, if each fume hood sash is closed to its minimum opening. Unfortunately, getting the sash to its minimum opening is completely dependent on operator compliance to close the sash before leaving the hood.
Lower operating face velocities (i.e., less than 100 fpm) have not traditionally been accepted in laboratories. A major impediment to this acceptance has been the knowledge that the presence and dynamic movement of the operator in front of the fume hood creates turbulence that can pull vapors out of the hood at face velocities under 100 fpm. However, without an operator present, a fume hood is capable of providing excellent containment at much lower face velocities (i.e., 60 fpm or greater). This has been recognized in current OSHA guidelines which recommend a range of operating face velocities from 60 to 100 fpm.
With the installation of the Phoenix Controls Zone Presence Sensor (ZPS), each variable air volume fume hood can be placed into a standby mode of operation based on actual hood usage. This standby operation reduces the hood exhaust volume, thereby providing a lower, yet safe, face velocity (i.e., 60 fpm), regardless of sash position, whenever the operator is away from the hood.
In this application, an exhaust valve (EXV) is used to control the exhaust volume out of each fume hood. Each hood exhaust valve is configured with a factory-mounted pressure switch to detect low static pressure across the valve. Each fume hood is equipped with a fume hood monitor which generates an alarm to alert the operator to low static pressure and flow alarm conditions.
During initial commissioning, each fume hood monitor is calibrated for both the standard (operator present) and standby (operator absent) modes of operation. In each mode the fume hood monitor is calibrated to maintain the relationship between sash opening and exhaust air volume so the respective face velocity is obtained. [As described above, all fume hoods are set up so the minimum sash opening and the minimum hood exhaust volume provide the standard face velocity. This minimum hood exhaust volume is typically not setback to a lower level, even during standby operation.]
The make-up air volume entering the zone is controlled with two separate master and slave make-up air valves (MAV) which, although installed in separate branch ducts, operate as a single make-up air unit. The minimum make-up air volume is sized to satisfy the minimum ventilation rate (calculated from air changes per hour). Due to a minimum ventilation volume that is greater than the hoods' total minimum exhaust demand, the make-up air minimum is clamped to a volume that is large enough to satisfy the ventilation rate. The make-up air valves track the total fume hood exhaust volume minus the desired room offset volume until this minimum make-up air volume is reached.
During conditions when the zone experiences a high internal heat gain (caused by season, time of day, people, lights, equipment, etc.) additional supply air is required to cool the space when all fume hood sashes are at their minimum opening. The zone's pneumatic thermostat commands the make-up air master/slave valve chain to open in response to a demand for cooling, regardless of the hoods' total exhaust demand, thereby accomplishing temperature override control.
Neither the large minimum ventilation volume nor the cooling override volume can all exhaust through the fume hoods when all the sashes are at their minimum opening. Therefore, an exhaust valve (EXV) is added to the system to remove the zone's general exhaust (GEX) volume. The general exhaust valve operates inversely to the total hood exhaust volume when the total hood exhaust demand is less than either the make-up air minimum ventilation volume or the temperature override volume.
This control approach works to maintain the minimum ventilation volume, to accomplish temperature control for cooling and to maintain zone pressurization control. In addition, the AFV control approach reduces the hood exhaust and conditioned make-up air volumes to provide an increase in energy savings during standby operation in non-temperature override conditions.
Independently, the zone thermostat controls the reheat coil to provide zone temperature control.
ZPS: Operator Present
ZPS: Operator Absent
Hood Exhaust Volume
The make-up air controller shall calculate the total hood exhaust volume by summing the feedback signals from both hood exhaust valves, and shall generate a 0-10 Vdc total hood exhaust signal.
To achieve a negative room offset volume, the make-up air controller shall subtract the quantity of offset from the total hood exhaust signal. The resultant 0-10 Vdc signal is the make-up air for hood demand signal and represents the volume of make-up air required to satisfy the total hood exhaust demand with respect to the desired room offset volume.
Supply and Temperature
On a rise in zone temperature, the electronic thermostat [or DDC controller] shall send a thermal demand signal to the make-up air controller that is within a 0 to 10 Vdc range. This thermal demand signal shall be proportionate to the supply air volume required to condition the lab. The ETI option (mounted on the make-up air controller) shall scale the thermal demand signal into a 0-10 Vdc signal at the supply cfm/volt scale factor of the make-up air controller.
The make-up air command signal shall be generated by comparing the override minimum clamp, the make-up air for hood demand and the scaled thermal demand signals, and selecting the higher of these three.
Independently, the zone thermostat shall control the reheat coil.
General Exhaust Volume
Static Pressure Fluctuations
Low Static Pressure